Vitreo-Retinal Clinic


The team in this service treats conditions at the back of the eye which require surgical intervention. Vitreoretinal surgery refers to any operation to treat eye problems involving the retina, macula, and vitreous fluid. These include retinal detachment, age related macular degeneration, macular hole and complications related to diabetic retinopathy. Treatment and management plans include: Injections, lasers and surgery.

Treatment and Management Plan


1. Injection

  • Triamcinolone: Corticosteroid medication that is given to reduce swelling in the macula and inflammation in other parts of the eye, such as the uvea. Macular swelling causes blurred vision and loss of visual acuity and can be caused by diabetic retinopathy, cystoid macular edema, or blockages in the veins and arteries in the retina. Edema related to inflammation of the uvea, which is found between the retina and the sclera, is also treated with triamcinolone injections.
  • Avastin: Brand name for bevacizumab, a drug injected into the eye to slow vision loss in people who have “wet” age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
  • Intravitreal Antibiotics: Used for treatment and management of any advanced infections.
  • Lucentis (ranibizumab injection): Prescription medicine for the treatment of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), macular edema following retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and diabetic macular edema (DME).

2. Lasers

  • Pan-retinal Photocoagulation (PRP): A special laser is used to make tiny burns that seal the retina and stop vessels from growing and leaking. Hundreds of tiny spots of laser are placed in the retina to reduce the risk of vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment. Targeted laser applications can treat specific areas in the central vision that are leaking. The laser is used to destroy all of the dead areas of retina where blood vessels have been closed. When these areas are treated with the laser, the retina stops manufacturing new blood vessels, and those that are already present tend to decrease or disappear. The goal of pan-retinal photocoagulation is to prevent the development of new vessels over the retina and elsewhere, not to regain lost vision. Usually used in the treatment of advanced diabetic retinopathy.
  • Barrage Laser: An Argon Laser treatment which is performed to strengthen weakened areas of the retina. During routine eye check-ups, if the retina is suspected to be weak, it is treated to strengthen it so that serious eye problems such as retinal detachment can be avoided.

3. Surgery

  • Pars Plana Vitrectomy (PPV): Surgical operation of removing the vitreous humor from the eyeball.
  • Internal Limiting Membrane (ILM) Peel: ILM is a very thin and transparent acellular membrane on the surface of the retina. We perform ILM peeling for the following conditions apart from macular hole: (1) chronic diabetic macular edema not responding to intravitreal anti-VEGF or steroid therapy; (2) epiretinal membrane (ERM) in the macular region; (3) significant macular wrinkling but no visible ERM; and (4) chronic or recurrent retinal detachments that have inner retinal wrinkling, retinal stiffness, or apparent intrinsic contracture.
  • Retinal Detachment Surgery: This may be done under general or local an anesthetic. The procedures involved are:
    • Vitrectomy
    • Scleral Buckling
    • Pneumatic Retinopaxy
  • Macular Hole Surgery - Vitreoctomy and ILM peeling is done depending on the case.
  • Cryosurgery - Involves the use of extreme cold to destro abnormal tissues, such as tumors.

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